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Media Mentions Archive: 2007


We regularly gather news articles and other media mentions of governance and anti-corruption issues in the news. Whilst we hope this is a useful reference for you, the World Bank is not responsible for the views expressed in non-World Bank publications/articles. Nor is the World Bank specifically endorsing one publication over another. Furthermore, not all of the articles below are available for download due to copyright restrictions. If you would like a full copy of articles that are not available for download on our website, please contact the respective news sources.

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Media mentions for Governance Matters VI: Governance Indicators for 1996–2006

Malawi qualifies for Millennium Challenge Account

Malawi ’s Daily Times, Malawi , 14 December 2007

"Malawi ’s selection is in recognition of the substantial steps taken by the government of Malawi towards addressing corruption and putting in place other sound policies to promote economic development,” Eastham said.  Malawi has scored 54 percent in its control of corruption, 80 percent in rule of law, 68 percent for voice and accountability, 59 percent in political rights and 65 percent in civil liberties, according to rates from the Freedom House and World Bank Institute.

Anti Corruption Bureau Celebrates International Anti Corruption Day Brunei , 13 December 2007

The Anti Corruption Bureau (ACB) yesterday held a ceremony to commemorate International Anti Corruption Day, which fell on December 9, at the Jerudong Park Country Club. Speaking on the issues of corruption, the Director of ACB said that the World Bank Institute estimated that every year, a total sum of US$1 trillion is used for corrupted activities.

British High Commissioner flayed both Sri Lanka Government and the LTTE

Asian Tribune , Thailand , 11 December 2007

Daniel Kaufman, the director of global governance at the World Bank Institute, argues that surveys reveal the value, in development terms, of good governance - what he calls the ‘development dividend’ of good governance. He has been bold enough to put a figure on it - about 300 percent. In other words, a country that has today $2,000 per capita income per year today can attain $6,000 per capita income per year in the long term if it improves its rule of law, controls corruption and increases government effectiveness.

CORPORATE WATCH The truth hurts

BusinessWorld, Philippines, 26 November 2007

A World Bank study shows that countries that effectively control corruption tend to develop faster. "Reducing politically motivated public spending and overcoming 'regulatory capture' (collusion of regulatory agencies with their publics) will all be essential for translating economic gains and strong fiscal performance into sustained high growth." Daniel Kaufmann, director of global governance at the World Bank Institute, quantified the relationship between good governance and development. "A country that improves in governance gets three times more income per capita in the long term - from $1,000 to $3,000 per capita per year or from $3,000 to $9,000 per year. We call it development dividend."

"Corrupcion",   Oppenheimer Presenta (Miami), October 10, 2007
(Video presentation #183)

African leaders steal $ 148 billion a year
Daily Monitor, New York/Kampala, 21 September 2007

A Quarter of the gross domestic product of African States - or $148 billion is lost to corruption annually, the United Nations has said.Most of this money is stolen by African leaders and kept in banks overseas. The UN and the World Bank estimate that the value of criminal businesses is between $1 to 2 trillion.The revelations were made during a press conference by the UN Secretary general, Mr Ban ki Moon, and the World Bank President, Mr Robert Zoelick in New York on Monday.

The launch of Stolen Assets Recovery Initiative (STAR) in New York is a warning shot especially in Africa- where leaders like the late Congolese (Zairean) President Mobutu Sese Seko and Gen Sani Abacha of Nigeria- built obscene fortunes abroad."There should be no haven for those who steal from the poor," Mr Zoellick added. STAR is also intended to tighten the noose on illegal money used by criminal groups including international terrorists.

A Fight Over Corruption
The Washington Post, 17 September 2007 (Editorial)

.......the bank's own research shows that good "governance" is a key factor in development. Robert B. Zoellick, the bank's new president, gets this. He declared that the Volcker report was "excellent" and that "stealing from the poor is not acceptable."

UN, World Bank Start Corruption Fight
ABC News, 17 September, 2007

The United Nations and the World Bank joined forces Monday to try to recover billions of dollars stolen from the coffers of developing countries every year by corrupt leaders and officials. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative is aimed at giving teeth to provisions of the U.N. treaty to fight global corruption, which came into force in December 2005, calling for the return of illicit assets.

U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said "the true cost of corruption far exceeds the value of the assets stolen" because in developing countries, the poor are deprived of health care, education, clean water, sanitation and paved roads.

World Bank says APEC trade transparency worth 73 bln
Reuters, United Kingdom, 3 September, 2007

Removing bribes and hidden trade barriers in APEC member economies could add about $148 billion (73.3 billion pounds) to the economies of the fast-growing Asia-Pacific region, a World Bank report published on Monday said. The report, issued ahead of this week's Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation summit, called for more transparent and predictable trade regulations among the 21-member group. Paying bribes can often be part of the negotiations between an exporter or importer and a customs agent, the report said. "Greater transparency and predictibality boost trade and reduce costs to business and ultimately to the consumer," said Australian Trade Minister Warren Truss, who released the report. 

Fischer: Problematic norms influence decision-making
The Jerusalem Post, June 28, 2007

"The problematic norm to say "I promised, but I didn't promise to implement," is what influences the process of agreements in this country, said Governor of the Bank of Israel, Stanley Fischer, at the Caesarea Forum on Wednesday.

Dr. Daniel Kaufman, Senior Director and Consultant on corruption prevention and governance at the World Bank, warned that due to the approach that Fischer spoke about, Israel has been underperforming in many dimensions of governance and in need of great improvement in order to secure sustained future growth and resilience. 'In the control of corruption, Israel nowadays rates among the top 50 countries among more than 200 worldwide. Yet Israel is far from rating among the top 25, and furthermore its performance on controlling corruption has deteriorated since the 1990s,' said Kaufman. 'Furthermore,' he said, 'Israel can be said to face a "governance deficit," particularly if benchmarked against industrialized countries (OECD). Israel rates among the bottom five countries of the richer industrialized world in any dimension of governance.' " 

The Doctor who cures corruption
Globes, Israel, 26 June 2007
Also available in Hebrew

"Ukraine, apparently unintentionally, not only contributed to Daniel Kaufmann's education; it also contributed to the international effort on behalf of good governance. Once back in the US, Kaufmann returned to his alma mater, Harvard, where he sat for a year and a half and formulated the six 'global indicators of good governance.' Together with two partners from the World Bank, he presented the indicators for the first time ten years ago. In two weeks' time, the World Bank Institute, of which he is a senior director, will once more rank 205 countries and territories according to these indicators. It will again paint the world map in colors of honor and disgrace."

Prosecuting the war against corruption
Business Day, Nigeria, 20 June 2007

"Obasanjo's government initially made so much progress in the fight against corruption that Daniel Kaufmann, head of global programmes at the World Bank Institute (WBI)- the man in charge of the governance and anti-corruption desk at the WBI in Washington- after a meeting with members of ex-President Obasanjo's economic team in 2005, praised Nigeria's progress in this regard, citing improved accountability, integrity in the handling of public finances, reduction in the extent of bribery in some areas like taxation and public procurement, as some merits of Nigeria's economic reforms. As reported on the website, at the time, Kaufmann noted that, 'Nigeria is changing for the better. In fact, if the current momentum is maintained and deepened, the progress made in the fight against corruption could become irreversible.' " 

Defend the court
Jerusalem Post, 6 June 2007

"According to World Bank governance indicators, Israel is in the 10th-25th percentile for both stability and non-violence, as compared with the OECD average, which is in the 75th-90th percentile. Israel's corruption index shows deterioration since 1998; and from an average position among OECD countries has fallen beneath the OECD range."

Banking on Zoellick, 30 May 2007

"Zoellick can and should push good governance, both within the bank and in recipient countries. If done correctly, such a push could win broad support. Wolfowitz’s downfall has often been painted in simplified, and starkly wrong, terms: he opposed corruption and the staff opposed him, so the staff must favor corruption. There may be some staff who do, but the bank is also home to many who realize just how essential good governance is in fostering economic development. Bank researchers such as Dani Kaufmann have been leaders in developing ways of measuring governance and demonstrating its importance. While Wolfowitz placed added emphasis on fighting corruption, the campaign to combat it within the bank was begun by his predecessor, James Wolfensohn, who did not encounter anything like the opposition Wolfowitz found."

World Bank Slashes Aid to Uganda Over Poor Budget Planning and Corruption Concerns
Global Insight Daily Analysis, United Kingdom, 30 May 2007

"As a spate of high-level corruption scandals and allegations grips Uganda, the World Bank has reduced part of its development and poverty reduction funding to the country. The World Bank country manager Grace Yabrudy is reported by Agence France-Presse (AFP) as saying: 'The reduction in (poverty reduction) support from 150 million dollars to 125 million...underlines the need for the government of Uganda to consider ways of improving performance in budget execution, decentralization and anti-corruption.' She highlighted significant budget overruns in the 2005-2006 fiscal year budget that forced the government to increase supplementary allocations. Significance: Issues of corruption throughout Uganda are not a new phenomenon and the World Bank has recently given the country a lower-than-average rating in its 'Governance Matters, 2006: Worldwide Governance Indicators' control of corruption, and voice and accountability category."

On the edge of a volcano
New Albany Tribune, 24 May 2007

"It is curious to note, that before the Paul Wolfowitz debacle, the World Bank, Washington's economic development organization that focuses on assisting needy countries, had initiated a debate on oversees financial corruption. 'What we realized was that corruption is not just a moral or ethical issue but an economic development issue,' said Daniel Kaufmann, an economist who began the World Bank's corruption studies. 'We estimate that with good governance, there is a threefold increase in per capita income as funds that should be allocated toward the gross domestic product are not siphoned out.' "

The persistent problem of corruption
Radio Netherlands Worldwide, 20 May 2007

Daniel Kaufmann on the mistakes made in lending money to corrupt regimes:

"The international community including the World Bank has made mistakes in too blindly providing funding, and too exclusively to central government and to leaders which sometimes have been corrupt, and those moneys have been siphoned off … That has to stop, and by and large has been stopped."
"But there are many other ways of helping a country: at the decentralised local level, at the village level … working more with NGOs, working with the private sector - so there are always alternatives [which allow us to] keep engaged and help the poor, without necessarily always thinking that one has to go through the central governing authorities if there is significant corruption."

Departure terms divides bank
Financial Times, London, 18 May 2007

"The terms of Paul Wolfowitz’s departure as president of the World Bank caused immediate divisions within the institution. Daniel Kaufman, a governance expert at the bank, said the terms of his departure – effective from June 30 – were likely to be regarded as outrageous but might provide a basis for reconciliation between the US and European governments. He said there was still an opportunity for a serious introspection as to the failings in governance. It was too easy to blame it all on the boss. It is necessary that he goes but it is not sufficient. 'It is important that the institution not succumb to inertia. The day after an ethics scandal like this is the day to begin a serious conversation about reform,' Mr Kaufman said. A statement from the board said: 'He assured us that he acted ethically and in good faith in what he believed were the best interests of the institution, and we accept that. We also accept that others involved acted ethically and in good faith.' It added: 'At the same time, it is clear from this material that a number of mistakes were made by a number of individuals in handling the matter under consideration, and that the bank’s systems did not prove robust to the strain under which they were placed.' "

Current Situation in Russia
Congressional Testimony, Committee on House Foreign Affairs, 17 May 2007

Statement of Michael A. McFaul, Professor at Stanford University

"A More Effective State? There can be no question that the Russian state under Putin is bigger and is more powerful in certain spheres of activity. There also can be no question that Russian citizens perceive the state to be more stable, a condition that most admire. Yet, is growing autocracy a necessary condition for producing a more effective state in Russia? Such a relationship is most certainly not true around the world, as there are dozens of autocracies with very weak states, and dozens of democracies with very strong states. In the Russian case, the assumed positive relationship between growing Russian autocracy and stability is not so apparent. Decision-making within the Russian state has become more centralized and the size of the state, measured as the number of federal employees, has nearly doubled from roughly 700,000 employees at the end of the Brezhnev era to 1.5 million today. But it is not obvious that the Russian state has become any more effective in providing basic public goods as a result.........

More general trends in governance, as measured by the World Bank, show some positive signs over the last ten years, especially in regulatory quality and government effectiveness. These positive trajectories, however, started before the Putin era. During his time in office, the other World Bank governance indicators are either flat or negative."

Will Wolfowitz quit? Take a bet
Today, Singapore, 11 May 2007

World Bank Institute director Daniel Kaufmann made several candid references to beleaguered World Bank president Paul Wolfowitz at yesterday's conference.
Mr Wolfowitz, who will address the Bank's board next Tuesday on allegations that he personally engineered a massive pay rise for his girlfriend, Ms Shaha Riza, is facing mounting pressure to quit.
Sharing the bank's efforts to measure transparency in various countries, Mr Kaufmann said: "As you all know, we are in the midst of a leadership crisis, and we want to learn what the lessons are. After all, the example has to start at home." He added that he was armed with a standard answer each time he was asked about Mr Wolfowitz's fate. Said Mr Kaufmann: "People ask me what's the probability that Mr Wolfowitz will stay or go?" His response was there was a 21 per cent chance of Mr Wolfowitz leaving by June. And how did he know? "You go to People are betting on that," he said, to laughter from the audience.

Diminishing returns if political reform lags; Not enough info to form balanced reviews, say speakers at conference
Today, Singapore, 11 May 2007

"The economic accolades continue to roll in, the latest one having Singapore edging out perennial rival Hong Kong to emerge as the world's second-most competitive economy after the United States.
But at a conference on transparency and governance yesterday, some speakers wondered whether the Republic would be able to sustain its competitive edge, given that political openness here has lagged behind the push for economic transparency. In his speech, World Bank Institute director Daniel Kaufmann said that Singapore is one of the least corrupt, most transparent and efficient when it comes to economic affairs, but scores low in terms of political openness and accountability. The conference was organised by the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy's Centre on Asia and Globalisation. Mr Kaufmann, who spoke from Washington via videoconference, said: 'There is some evidence to suggest that over time, a country that has progressed more in terms of reforms in the economic arena but still behind in the political reforms and competition, at some point, we would get diminishing returns from additional reforms.' " 

'Paradox' of open society in S'pore
Straits Times, Singapore, 11 May 2007

"They call it the 'Singapore paradox'. The opening of the Conference on Transparency and Governance yesterday saw three speakers touching on this theme: that while Singapore is open when it comes to economic transparency, it is less so when it comes to political transparency. The conference, which ends today, is organised by the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. Economic transparency refers to openness with information such as budgets, economic policymaking and public administration, said Mr Daniel Kaufmann from the World Bank Institute. Political transparency refers to openness with issues such as political funding, disclosure of politicians' assets, openness and competitiveness of political participation, and an independent media. Singapore's scores are, respectively, around 2.3 and -1 (on a scale of -2.5 to 2.5), he added. But is transparency desirable? There is a direct correlation between economic transparency and global economic competitiveness, said Mr Kaufmann. There is also a link, though not as strong, between political transparency and global economic competitiveness, he added."

The Singapore paradox on transparency
Business Times Singapore, 11 May 2007

"Singapore is a very open, yet at the same time a very closed, country when it comes to transparency, according to speakers at a conference on transparency and governance being held at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. Daniel Kaufmann, director of global programmes at the World Bank Institute, said that a transparency index he has compiled indicates that Singapore has a great deal of economic transparency but less in the way of political transparency.
'Singapore is an outlier,' he said. 'It is one of the best in the world in terms of (the lack of) corruption, but not in terms of political transparency.' "

Key Role of Media in Development Outlined in New Book
Internews, 10 May 2007

"Independent media face many constraints ranging from restrictive legal environments to physical attacks on journalists, but they play a central role in exposing corruption and improving governance, according to World Bank economist Daniel Kaufmann. As the featured speaker at a panel discussion in Washington, DC on May 2, Kaufmann introduced a new publication of the Global Forum for Media Development (GFMD), saying, 'The title puts it starkly: Media Matters. And I would expand that to say ‘media freedom matters.’ Kaufmann, who is Director of Global Programs and Governance at the World Bank Institute, shared research showing that countries with a free press have a 70% chance of controlling corruption, while those without a free press have only a 10% chance of doing so."

When Integrity Falters
IAfrica, South Africa, 4 May 2007

"In 2004, Daniel Kaufmann, the World Bank’s Institute’s director for Governance, estimated that over $1-trillion ($1000-billion) is paid in bribes each year. The $1-trillion figure, calculated using 2001-02 economic data compares with an estimated size of the world economy at that time of just over $30-trillion and excludes embezzlement of public funds or theft of public assets. Kaufmann also noted that a calculation of the total amounts of corrupt transactions is only part of the overall costs of corruption, which constitutes a major obstacle to reducing poverty, inequality and infant mortality in developing countries."

Why fighting corruption helps the poor
The Statesman, Ghana, 4 May 2007

"Fighting corruption is no longer just a moral issue. It has become a major tool in the fight against world poverty. Once seen as the cost of doing business in much of the globe - sometimes even regarded as useful in greasing the way for development projects - bribery increasingly is viewed as a major stumbling block to progress.

And increasingly, governments and business groups around the world are beginning to do something about it. 'There has been a sea change in the past seven or eight years in awareness of the issue,' says Daniel Kaufmann, the World Bank's top official on the corruption issue.
Today the Bank and other development institutions work to discourage graft, sometimes with success, sometimes with little progress.'A country needs to have some commitment to help itself,' says the World Bank's Kaufmann."

World Bank staff air concern at Wolfowitz controversy 
Reuters News, Washington DC, 4 May 2007

"More than 700 World Bank staff have signed a letter expressing concern and calling for a resolution of a crisis involving bank President Paul Wolfowitz as a decision over his leadership looms.
In a rare move, the 718 employees asked to add their names to a letter first circulated on April 26 by 46 World Bank officials working to implement the bank's anti-corruption strategy. The surge of signatures, on a public letter on the bank's Web site, reflected signs of increasing discontent.
The next 72 hours will be critical for the former No. 2 Pentagon official accused of violating staff rules by directing a high-paid promotion for his companion Shaha Riza, a World Bank Middle East expert, as an investigating panel prepares to announce its findings.

Wolfowitz has accused his critics of a smear campaign to oust him and has said he will not be pushed to resign, noting there were directives by the bank's board to assign Riza to an outside job with a promotion. The letter has become an outlet for staff from all levels at the bank to show their discontent with the controversy and how it could damage the perception of the poverty-fighting institution in the developing world. Among the bank's total staff of about 10,000, the letter was signed by anti-corruption chief Daniel Kaufmann and Sanjay Pradhan, director of the bank's public sector governance board."

World Press Freedom Day: Concern for Venezuela
IvoryTowerz, Washington, DC, 3 May 2007

"Congressman Adam Schiff (D-CA) convened a special panel on the eve of World Press Freedom Day. The panel included Mauricio Herrera Ulloa, an investigative reporter for La Nacion of Costa Rica. Herrera singled out Venezuela several times for criticism during the two-hour session. Herrera included Venezuela on a list of countries that “don’t sincerely believe in the laws on transparency and press freedom.”

One of the panelists, Daniel Kaufmann of the World Bank told those assembled that although press freedom had made advances in some regions, a study of the past dozen years of indices that measure impressions of freedom show no actual advancement on a worldwide scale. He urged those assembled – including representatives of the State Department, various think tanks, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) – to strongly consider multinational approaches to promoting free expression instead of relying solely on the U.S. government."

Widows of slain Pinoy journalists told: 'Don't be silent!'
ABS CBN News, Philippines, 3 May 2007

"Myroslava Gongadze wanted to deliver a message to the widows of slain Filipino journalists – 'You cannot be silent. You must find the truth and tell it to your whole country.' Myroslava is the widow of Ukranian journalist Georgiy Gongadze, whose brutal murder in 2000 galvanized opposition to the despotic Kuchma regime and culminated in the Orange Revolution – Ukraine’s version of People Power – which helped install the first democratically-elected president in 2004.

On the eve of World Press Freedom Day, Ms. Gongadze addressed a forum on media’s role in exposing corruption organized by the National Endowment for Democracy (NED). The other members of the panel included World Bank director for global programs and governance Daniel Kaufmann. Kaufmann explained the World Bank has been measuring how countries fare in fighting corruption, and discovered that those with relatively free media have a 90 percent probability of success while those with 'partly free media” have only a 10 percent probability of success.' " 

Anti-graft experts warn Wolfowitz  
Financial Times, London, 27 April 2007

"The crisis over Paul Wolfowitz's leadership of the World Bank is destroying the bank's credibility on governance and anti-corruption, virtually the entire team of bank managers working on these issues said yesterday. The warning came in a -letter to Mr Wolfowitz and the bank's board of directors from 46 senior bank officials, including Daniel Kaufmann, one of the world's leading anti-corruption experts, and Sanjay Pradhan, director of the bank's public sector -governance board.

'The credibility of our front line staff is eroding in the face of legitimate questions from our clients about the bank's ability to practise what it preaches on governance. In these circumstances, we cannot credibly implement the governance and anti-corruption strategy,' they wrote.
They stopped short of explicitly calling for Mr -Wolfowitz's resignation, but demanded that the bank's governance standards be 'upheld and enforced impartially . . . even when they touch the highest levels of this institution.' "

World Bank Unit Urges Quick Decision on Wolfowitz 
Bloomberg, New York, 27 April 2007

"A group of World Bank employees who oversee the agency's campaign to fight corruption in poor nations urged ``clear and decisive actions'' in the probe of President Paul Wolfowitz's decision to arrange a promotion and pay raise for his companion.

In their letter, the members of the Washington-based agency's Governance and Anticorruption Strategy group said the 'credibility of our front-line staff' had been undermined. They asked the board 'to resolve this crisis quickly in a way that demonstrates to all our stakeholders the bank's commitment to the highest standards of integrity.' The bank's Governance and Anticorruption group, which wrote the letter to Wolfowitz, was created more than a decade ago to devise ways to promote good government in the developing nations that receive money from the agency. The bank distributes $23 billion a year on projects from roads to clinics. Among those who signed the letter were Daniel Kaufmann, a director of the World Bank's training division; Sanjay Pradhan, director of the public-sector group; and Peter Harold, head of the operations-policy department."

The World Bank must regain its authority to fight corruption
Financial Times, London, 18 April 2007

" 'If you want to make poverty history you have to make corruption history.' Paul Wolfowitz, embattled president of the World Bank, cited this remark by Nuhu Ribadu, head of the Economic Crimes and Corruption Commission of Nigeria, in a speech made only last month. There he emphasised, once again, the guiding theme of his presidency: fighting corruption and improving governance.
How credible, after recent revelations, is the World Bank as a beacon of good governance and a scourge of corruption? 'Much less than it should be' is the answer.

Yet corruption is also the natural thing to do. That is why it has always been pervasive. It is its absence that is unnatural. A society relatively free of corruption has removed the motivations of the marketplace from politics, public administration and the law. Since rich countries are far less corrupt than poor ones, the former have a better-enforced line between what lies within the market and what lies outside it (see chart).

Yet is it their wealth that causes the low corruption or the low corruption that causes their wealth? If it were solely the former, the World Bank's anti-corruption campaign would be a waste of time.
Fortunately, as Daniel Kaufmann, the bank's leading researcher on governance, argues, the relationship works both ways. 'We estimate', writes Mr Kaufmann, 'that a country that improved its governance from a relatively low level to an average level could almost triple the income per capita of its population in the long term, and similarly reduce infant mortality and illiteracy.' "

Mt Elgon Violence a Reflection of Our Collective Amnesia
The Nation, Nairobi, 11 April 2007

"Although the questions are many, the answer is the same. As a country, we are groping in the dark when it comes to good governance. We lack benchmarks to define, identify and address governance problems. We refuse to accept professional advise and incessantly continue chest-thumping, insisting we are holistically right when we are dead wrong.

This conclusion is driven by a review of two important governance reports. At the international arena, we have the latest 10-year World Bank Group report covering 213 countries. This report is by Daniel Kaufman, Aart Kraay, and Massimo Mastruzzi. It was released in September 2006 and the title is: Governance Matters: Governance Indicators for 1996-2005."

The Next Crusade
The New Yorker, 9 April 2007

"It is true that, beginning in the mid-nineties, some staffers urged the bank to confront corruption more aggressively. Daniel Kaufmann, a Chilean economist who is the director of global programs at the World Bank Institute, the bank’s training arm, has for years argued that reducing corruption and improving governance are necessary to fight poverty. 'I wouldn’t exaggerate my influence,' Kaufmann said when I spoke to him recently, adding that Wolfowitz 'arrived at the bank, as Wolfensohn before him, already convinced that this was an extremely important issue in development.' "

Reform of Indonesia's governance: Myth or reality?
Straits Times, Singapore, 9 April 2007

"What is good governance? According to the World Bank, it comprises six main elements: voice and accountability, political stability, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, and control of corruption. The World Bank's Worldwide Governance Indicators assign percentile rankings to each country against each of these.

For Indonesia, two main points stand out. First, the ratings are in most cases a long way below the 50th percentile; and second, there has been significant improvement in most of them."

Economic Gap Between GCC and Rest of Middle East Widening
Global Insight Daily Analysis, 9 April 2007

"Another area in which there is a gap between the GCC and the rest of the Middle East is the quality of governance. Ever since 1996, the World Bank has produced a comparative table of governance based on six parameters: voice and accountability; political stability; government effectiveness; regulatory quality; rule of law; and cost of corruption (see ”Governance Matters V: Governance Indicators for 1996-2005”, World Bank, 2006). Comparing the performances of GCC and other MENA countries for each of these six parameters, GCC countries earned higher scores in all six parameters and the gap is noticeable for five parameters. The only parameter for which the gap between the GCC and rest of MENA is small is voice and accountability. Both the GCC and the rest of MENA score poorly on this criterion, which measures the degree of political freedom and citizens' participation in the political process. For the remaining five parameters, GCC countries not only outperform the remaining MENA countries, but they also score higher than the average for 20 East Asian countries with the largest populations."

Koreans have low esteem for their government: Survey shows majority of people are negative about government's integrity, transparency
The Korea Herald, 14 March 2007

"According to the report, released in September 2006, the Korean government's performance in the two categories has been on a downward slope since 1996.

Titled "Governance Matters V: Governance Indicators for 1996-2005," the report used rule of law, voice and accountability, regulatory quality, government effectiveness, political stability/no violence and control of corruption as indicators to rate the quality of governance in each of the nations. The results for Korea showed that while the two indicators for the government's ability to control corruption and uphold the law showed improvements between 2003 and 2005, the percentile ranking for the two values were still below the level seen in 1996."

Expert Discusses Private Sector's Role in Fighting Corruption - USINFO Webchat transcript
US State Department, 15 February 2007

"World Bank studies, the work of Hernando de Soto, and our own work at CIPE clearly shows that corruption is one of the biggest barriers to starting legal, formal sector businesses that can create jobs and income for the poor. Take a look at the World Bank's web site -- to see some of these linkages country-by-country as well as the work of the World Bank's -- Dani Kauffman who has documented a lot of these issues in the Bank's Governance Indicators."

World Bank Survey Shows Middle East Lagging Behind East Asia in Quality of Governance
Global Insight Daily Analysis, 12 February 2007

"The latest World Bank Survey of governance, which was released in September 2006, reveals that the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries scored significantly lower than the advanced industrial nations of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the East Asian Newly Industrialised Countries (NIC). For more than 10 years, the World Bank has surveyed the quality of governance across a wide range of developing and developed countries. The results of these annual surveys have been transformed into a set of standard quantitative indicators titled Worldwide Governance Indicators. The survey focuses on six distinct measures of governance: voice and accountability, political stability, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law and control of corruption."

Udo-Udoma Charges Professionals On Politics
All Africa, Lagos, 25 January 2007

"The Chief Whip of the Senate, Senator Udoma Udo Udoma, yesterday called for the involvement of more professionals in Nigerian politics as a way of moving the country forward, stressing that most career politicians are not issue-driven.

"Observing that good governance was imperative for economic development, he said that the World Bank, which proffered six indicators of quality governance, is of the view that when governance is improved by one standard deviation, income rise about three-fold and infant mortality declines by two thirds."

"The indicators, he continued, include voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law and control of corruption. He regretted however that in spite of the efforts of the present government at providing good governance, the latest worldwide governance indicators released by the World Bank in September 2006, ranked Nigeria below average for countries in Sub-Saharan Africa in all categories of quality governance."

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