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Variables and Clusters

The KAM variables represent the overall performance of the economy and the 4 pillars of the Knowledge Economy framework. The dataset is divided into 8 functional cuts:

KAM bulletOverall Performance of the Economy

 

KAM bulletEconomic Incentive and Institutional regime

          • Economic Regime

          • Governance

 

KAM bulletThe Innovation System

 

KAM bulletEducation and Human resources

          • Education

         Labor         

         

 

KAM bulletInformation and Communication Technology (ICT)

 

 

As working with a large set of 148 variables can be unwieldy, a simplified Basic Scorecard has been developed. This 14-variable scorecard attempts to capture a country's preparedness for the knowledge-based economy and is used to calculate its overall Knowledge (KI) and Knowledge Economy (KEI) Indexes. The variables used in the basic scorecard are indicated in green.

 

If reliable data for the indicated year is not available, the closest available year is used.

 

Please note that some variables come from the World Bank's internal database Development Data Platform (DDP). Whenever possible, we provide the source of the original data. 

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  OVERALL PERFORMANCE OF THE ECONOMY

 

Average Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Growth, 1993-97 and 2005-2009 (%) (DDP) Annual GDP growth is a good indicator of a country's overall economic development. World Bank and OECD national accounts data.

 

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Per Capita, 2009 (international current PPP $) (DDP) World Bank and OECD national accounts data.

 

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (current US$ bill.), 2009 (DDP) World Bank and OECD national accounts data.

 

Human Development Index (HDI), 2010 (UNDP Human Development Report 2010)  Table 1. The HDI provides information on the human development aspect of economic growth. The HDI is based on three indicators: longevity, as measured by life expectancy at birth; educational attainment, as measured by a combination of adult literacy rate and the combined gross primary, secondary and tertiary enrollment ratio; and standard of living, as measured by GDP per capita (Purchasing Power Parity US$ ).

 

Multidimensional Poverty Index, 2008 (UNDP Human Development Report 2010) Tables 5. A measure of serious deprivations in the dimensions of health, education and living standards that combines the number of deprived and the intensity of their deprivation.

 

Gender Inequality Index, 2008 (UNDP Human Development Report 2010) Table 4. A measure that captures the loss in achievements due to gender disparities in the dimensions of reproductive health, empowerment and labor force participation. Values range from 0 (perfect equality) to 1 (total inequality).

 

Seats in Parliament Held by Women (as % of total), 2009 (UNDP Human Development Report 2009) Table K. This refers held by women in a lower or single house or an upper house or senate, where relevant.

 

Composite Risk Rating, July 2010- June 2011 (monthly average)  (International Country Risk Guide) The rating is an overall index, ranging from 0 to 100, based on 22 components of political, financial and economic risk: very high risk ( 00.0 to 49.9), high risk (50.0 to 59.9), moderate risk (60.0 to 69.9), low risk (70.0 to 79.9), and very low risk (80.0 to 100).

 

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THE ECONOMIC REGIME

 

Gross Capital Formation as % of GDP (Average), 2005-2009 (DDP) GCF consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. World Bank and OECD national accounts data.

 

Trade as % of GDP, 2009 (DDP) The sum of exports and imports of goods and services, measured as a share of GDP. World Bank and OECD national accounts data.

 

Tariff & Nontariff Barriers, 2011 (Heritage Foundation) This is a score assigned to each country based on the analysis of its tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade, such as import bans and quotas as well as strict labeling and licensing requirements. The score is based on the Heritage Foundation's Trade Freedom score.

 

Soundness of Banks, 2010 (WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011 )  Table 8.07. This is based on the statistical score on a 1-7 scale of a large sample group in a particular country responding to the question of whether "banks are generally sound" in their country. (1= insolvent and may require government bailout, 7= generally healthy with sound balance sheets).

 

Exports of Goods and Services as % of GDP, 2009 (DDP) This includes the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. This excludes labor and property income as well as transfer payments. World Bank and OECD national accounts data.

 

Interest Rate Spread (lending rate minus deposit rate), 2009(DDP) The interest rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers minus the interest rate paid by commercial or similar banks for demand, time, or savings deposits. International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.

 

Intensity of Local Competition, 2010 (WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011 )  Table 6.01. This is based on the statistical score on a 1-7 scale of a large sample group in a particular country responding to the question of whether competition in the local markets is intense in their country. (1= limited in most industries and price-cutting is rare, 7 = intense and market leadership changes over time).

 

Domestic Credit to Private Sector (% of GDP), 2009 (DDP) Indicator refers to financial resources provided to the private sector, such as through loans, purchases of non-equity securities, and trade credits and other accounts receivable that establish a claim for repayment. For some countries these claims include credit to public enterprises. International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.

 

Cost to Register a Business (% of GNI per capita), 2011 (Doing Business) Official costs of business registration.

 

Days Required to Start a Business, 2011 (Doing Business) Duration of all procedures required to register a firm.

 

Cost to Enforce a Contract (% of debt), 2011 (Doing Business) Cost in court fees and attorney fees, where the use of attorneys is mandatory or common, expressed as a percentage of the debt value.

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GOVERNANCE

 

Regulatory Quality, 2009 (Governance Indicators, World Bank) This indicator measures the incidence of market-unfriendly policies such as price controls or inadequate bank supervision, as well as perceptions of the burdens imposed by excessive regulation in areas such as foreign trade and business development.

 

Rule of Law, 2009 (Governance Indicators, World Bank) This indicator includes several indicators which measure the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society. These include perceptions of the incidence of both violent and non-violent crime, the effectiveness and predictability of the judiciary, and the enforceability of contracts.

 

Government Effectiveness, 2009 (Governance Indicators, World Bank) This indicator combines into one grouping perceptions of the quality of public service provision, the quality of the bureaucracy, the competence of civil servants, the independence of the civil service from political pressures, and the credibility of the government's commitment to policies.

 

Voice and Accountability, 2009 (Governance Indicators, World Bank) This is a composite indicator and comprises a number of individual indicators measuring various aspects of the political process, civil liberties and political rights. This index measures the extent to which citizens of a country are able to participate in the selection of governments. Also, included are indicators measuring the independence of the media, which serves an important role in monitoring those in authority and holding them accountable for their actions.

 

Political Stability, 2009 (Governance Indicators, World Bank) This index combines several indicators which measure perceptions of the likelihood that the government in power will be destabilized or overthrown by possibly unconstitutional means and/or violent means. This index captures the idea that the quality of governance in a country is compromised by the likelihood of wrenching changes in government, which not only has a direct effect on the continuity of policies, but also at a deeper level undermines the ability of the citizens to peacefully select and replace those in power.

 

Control of Corruption, 2009 (Governance Indicators, World Bank) This indicator corresponds to "graft" measures of corruption. Notably, corruption measured by the frequency of "additional payments to get things done" and the effects of corruption on the business environment.

 

Press Freedom, 2010 (Freedom House) The cumulative score of the degree of press freedom in a country. Countries scoring 0 to 30 are regarded as having "Free" media, 31-60, "Partly Free" media and 61 to 100, "Not Free" media.

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THE INNOVATION SYSTEM

 

FDI Outflows as % of GDP, 2004-08 (average) (UNCTAD) Outflows of FDI in the reporting economy comprise capital provided (either directly or through other related enterprises) by a company resident in the economy (foreign direct investor) to an enterprise resident in another country. UNCTAD and World Bank staff calculation.

 

FDI Inflows as % of GDP, 2004-08 (average) (UNCTAD) Inflows of FDI in the reporting economy comprise capital provided (either directly or through other related enterprises) by a foreign direct investor to an enterprise resident in the economy. UNCTAD and World Bank staff calculation.

 

Royalty and License Fees Payments, (US$ millions), 2009 (DDP) These are payments between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, non-produced, non-financial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes, such as manuscripts and films. International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.

 

Royalty and License Fees Payments (US$ millions) Per Million Population, 2009 (DDP) This is the variable above, weighted by million population per country.

 

Royalty and License Fees Receipts (US$ millions), 2009 (DDP) These are receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, non-produced, non-financial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as manuscripts and films). International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.

 

Royalty and License Fees Receipts (US$ millions) Per Million Population, 2009 (DDP) This is the variable above, weighted by million population.

 

Royalty and License Fees Payments and Receipts (US$ millions), 2009 Royalty and License Fees Payments (US$ mil.) + Royalty and License Fees Receipts (US$ mil.).

 

Royalty and License Fees Payments and Receipts (US$ millions) Per Million Population, 2009, Royalty and License Fees Payments (per mil pop.) + Royalty and License Fees Receipts (per mil pop.).

 

Science and Engineering Enrollment Ratio, 2009 (as % of tertiary enrollment students) (UNESCO) This includes the fields of science (except social science), engineering, manufacturing and construction.

 

Science Enrollment Ratio, 2009 (as % of tertiary enrollment students) (UNESCO) This includes the field of science only, except social science.

 

Researchers in R&D, 2009 (UNESCO) The total number of researchers engaged in R&D, as reported in the selected R&D indicators section of the UNESCO yearbook.

 

Researchers in R&D Per Million Population, 2009 (UNESCO) This is the variable above weighted by million population.

 

Total Expenditure for R&D as % of GDP, 2008 (UNESCO) Included are fundamental and applied research and experimental development work leading to new devices, products, and processes.

 

Manufacturing Trade as Percentage of GDP, 2009 (DDP) The total volume of manufactured exports and imports over the total GDP. World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.

 

University-Company Research Collaboration, 2010 (WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011 ) Table 12.04. This is based on the statistical score on a 1-7 scale of a large sample group in a particular country responding to the question of whether companies' collaboration with local universities in research and development activities in their country is (1= minimal or nonexistent, 7= intensive and ongoing).

 

Scientific and Technical Journal Articles, 2007 (DDP) This refers to scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences. National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators. Sources: Thomson Reuters, SCI and SSCI; The Patent Board; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, special tabulations.

 

Scientific and Technical Journal Articles Per Million Population, 2007 (DDP) This is the variable above, weighted by million population. Sources: Thomson Reuters, SCI and SSCI; The Patent Board; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, special tabulations.

 

Availability of Venture Capital, 2010 (WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011 ) Table 8.04. This is based on the statistical score on a 1-7 scale of a large sample group in a particular country responding to the question of whether entrepreneurs with innovative but risky projects can generally find venture capital in their country. (1= not true, 7= true).

 

Patent Applications Granted by the USPTO, average for 2005-09 (USPTO) Shows the number of U.S. patent documents (i.e., utility patents, design patents, plant patents, reissue patents, defensive publications, and statutory invention registrations) granted.

Patent Applications Granted by the USPTO Per Million People, average for 2005-09 (USPTO)
 This is the variable above weighted by million population.

 

High-Technology Exports as % of Manufactured Exports, 2009 (DDP) High-technology exports are products with high R&D intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery.

 

Private Sector Spending on R&D, 2010 (WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011)  Table 12.03. This is based on the statistical score on a 1-7 scale of a large sample group in a particular country responding to the question of whether companies spend heavily on research in their country. (1= do not spend, 7 = spend heavily relative to international peers).

 

Firm-Level Technology Absorption, 2010  (WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-20011) Table 9.02. This is based on the statistical score on a 1-7 scale of a large sample group in a particular country responding to the question of whether the companies in you country are (1= not able to absorb new technology, 7 = aggressive in absorbing new technology)

 

Value Chain Breadth, 2010 WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011 ) Table 11.05. In your country, do exporting companies have a narrow or broad presence in the value chain? [1 = narrow, primarily involved in individual steps of the value chain (e.g., resource extraction or production); 7 = broad, present across the entire value chain (i.e., do not only produce but also perform product design, marketing sales, logistics, and after-sales services)

 

Capital Goods Gross Imports (% of GDP), 2005-09 avg (World Integrated Trade Solution) The indicator can be derived from disaggregated international trade statistic within section 7 of the Standard Trade Classification(SITC).  One can usually excludes consumer goods such as domestic appliances, television receivers, ratios and broadcast receivers, passenger motor cars and chassis, and motor cycles and bicycles. World Integrated Trade Solution, UN Comtrade HS1988/92, World Bank staff computation.

 

Capital Goods Gross Exports (% of GDP), 2005-09 avg (World Integrated Trade Solution) The indicator can be derived from disaggregated international trade statistic within section 7 of the Standard Trade Classification(SITC).  One can usually excludes consumer goods such as domestic appliances, television receivers, ratios and broadcast receivers, passenger motor cars and chassis, and motor cycles and bicycles. World Integrated Trade Solution, UN Comtrade HS1988/92, World Bank staff computation.

 

S&E articles with foreign coauthorship (%), 2008 This refers to the share of published S&E articles which have foreign coauthors. It is calculated by dividing the number of papers a specific country participated in with 1 or more foreign institutional authors by the total number of papers the specific country participated in.  Article counts from the set of journals covered by the Science Citation Index (SCI) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Articles classified by tape year (the year they entered the database), rather than the year of publication, and assigned to region/country/economy on basis of institutional address(es) listed on article. Articles on whole-count basis, i.e., each collaborating region/country/economy credited one count. Sources: Thomson Reuters, SCI and SSCI; The Patent Board; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, special tabulations, World Bank staff computation.

Average number of citations per S&E article, 2008  Citation counts from set of journals covered by Science Citation Index (SCI) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Articles classified by tape year (the year they entered the database), rather than the year of publication, and assigned to region/country/economy on basis of institutional address(es) listed on the article. Citations on fractional-count basis, i.e., for articles with collaborating institutions from multiple countries/economies, each country/economy receives fractional credit on basis of proportion of its participating institutions. Citation counts based on 3-year period with 2-year lag, e.g., citations for 2005 are references made in articles in 2005 data tape to articles in 2001-03 data tapes. The average number of citations per published S&E article for 2005 is the total number of citations referred in S&E articles in 2005 tape year divided by the number of S&E articles in 2001, 2002 and 2003 tape year. Source: Thomson Reuters, SCI and SSCI; The Patent Board; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, special tabulations, World Bank staff computation.

Intellectual Property Protection, 2010 (WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011 ) Table 1.02. This is based on the statistical score on a 1-7 scale of a large sample group in a particular country responding to the question of whether intellectual property protection is strong in their country (1= weak or nonexistent, 7 = is equal to the world's most stringent).

 

EDUCATION

 

Adult Literacy Rate (% age 15 and above), 2007 (UNESCO) Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life.

 

Average Years of Schooling, 2010 (15 years old and above) (Barro and Lee)  This variable is used as an aggregate measure of the educational stock in a country.

 

Average Years of Schooling, female 2010 (15 years old and above) (Barro and Lee)  This variable is used as an aggregate measure of the educational stock in a country.

 

Secondary Enrollment (% gross), 2009 (UNESCO) The ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown.

 

Tertiary Enrollment (% gross), 2009 (UNESCO) The ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown.

 

Life Expectancy at Birth, 2009 (DDP) The number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at its time of birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

 

Internet Access in Schools, 2010 (WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011) Table 5.06. This is based on the statistical score on a 1-7 scale of a large sample group in a particular country responding to the question of whether internet access in schools in their country is (1= very limited, 7= pervasive-most children have frequent access).

 

Public Spending on Education as % of GDP, 2009 (DDP) This consists of public spending on public education plus subsidies to private education at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels.

 

4th Grade Achievement in Mathematics, 2007 (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, TIMSS) This is based on the score assigned to the performance of 4th grade students on a standardized mathematics test.

 

4th Grade Achievement in Science, 2007 (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, TIMSS) This is based on the score assigned to the performance of 4th grade students on a standardized science test.

 

8th Grade Achievement in Mathematics, 2007 (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, TIMSS) This is based on the score assigned to the performance of 8th grade students on a standardized mathematics test.

 

8th Grade Achievement in Science, 2007 (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, TIMSS) This is based on the score assigned to the performance of 8th grade students on a standardized science test.

 

Quality of Science and Math Education, 2010 (WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011)  Table 5.04. This is based on the statistical score on a 1-7 scale of a large sample group in a particular country responding to the question of whether math and science education in you country’s schools (1 = lag far behind most of the countries, 7 = are among the best in the world).

 

Quality of Management Education, 2010 (WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011)  Table 5.05. This is based on the statistical score on a 1-7 scale of a large sample group in a particular country asked to rate the "quality of local management schools". (1= limited or of poor quality, 7 = among the world's best).

 

15-year-olds' math literacy, 2009 (OECD Program for International Student Assessment, PISA) Scores of 15-year-old students in mathematics literacy.

 

15-year-olds' science literacy, 2009 (OECD Program for International Student Assessment, PISA) Scores of 15-year-old students in science literacy.

 

School Enrollment, Secondary, Female (% gross), 2009 (UNESCO) The ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown.

 

School Enrollment, Tertiary, Female (% gross), 2009 (UNESCO) The ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown.

 

No Schooling, total, 2010 (Barro and Lee) Percentage of population, 15+, total, no education is the percentage of the population over age 15 with no education.

 

No Schooling, female, 2010 (Barro and Lee) Percentage of population, 15+, female, no education is the percentage of the female population over age 15 with no education.

 

Secondary School completion, total (% of pop 15+), 2010 (Barro and Lee) Percentage of population, 15+, total, completed secondary is the percentage of people over age 15 who have completed secondary education.

 

Secondary School completion, female (% of pop 15+), 2010 (Barro and Lee) Percentage of population, 15+, female, completed secondary is the percentage of females over age 15 who have completed secondary education.

 

Tertiary School completion ,total (% of pop 15+), 2010 (Barro and Lee) Percentage of population, 15+, total, completed tertiary is the percentage of people over age 15 who have completed tertiary education.

 

Tertiary School completion , female(% of pop 15+), 2010 (Barro and Lee) Percentage of population, 15+, female, completed tertiary is the percentage of females over age 15 who have completed tertiary education.

 

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LABOR

 

Unemployment Rate (% of total labor force), 2005-2009 (International Labor Organization) The share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Unemployment Rate, male  (% of male labor force), 2005-2009 (International Labor Organization) The share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Unemployment Rate, female (% of female labor force), 2005-2009 (International Labor Organization) The share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Employment in Industry (% of total employment), 2008 (DDP) The proportion of total employment recorded as working in the industrial sector. Industry includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, electricity, gas and water, and construction.

 

Employment in Services (% of total employment), 2008 (DDP) The proportion of total employment recorded as working in the services sector. Services include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services.

 

Professional and Technical Workers as % of the Labor Force, 2008 (ILO Labor Statistics) This involves calculation of total number of technical and professional workers as a percentage of the labor force. Data were obtained from Table 2C - Total employment, by occupation.

 

Extent of Staff Training, 2010 (WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011 ) Table 5.08. This is based on the statistical score on a 1-7 scale of a large sample group in a particular country responding to the question of whether "in your country, the general approach to human resources is to invest" (1= little in training and development, 7 = heavily to attract, train, and retain staff).

 

Brain Drain, 2010 (WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011 )Table 7.08. This is based on the statistical score on a 1-7 scale of a large sample group in a particular country asked to rate whether the country's talented people (1= normally leave to pursue opportunities in other countries, 7= almost always remain in the country).

 

Cooperation in labor-employer relations, 2010 (WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011) Table 7.01 Labor-employer relations in your country are (1 = generally confrontational, 7 = generally cooperative).

 

Flexibility of wage determination, 2010 (WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011) Table 7.02. In your country, wages are (1 = set by a centralized bargaining process, 7 = up to each individual company).

 

Pay and productivity, 2010 (WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011) Table 7.06. In your country, pay is (1 = not related to worker productivity, 7 = strongly related to worker productivity).

 

Reliance on professional management, 2010 (WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011) Table 7.07. Senior management positions in your country are (1 = usually held by relatives or friends without regard to merit, 7 = mostly held by professional managers chosen for their superior qualification).

 

Local availability of specialized research and training services, 2010 (WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011) Table 5.07.  In your country, specialized research and training services are (1 = not available, 7 = available from world-class local institutions).

 

Difficulty of hiring index, 2010 (Doing Business) Applicability and maximum duration of fixed-term contracts and minimum wage for trainee or first-time employee. Higher values indicate more rigid regulations.

 

Rigidity of hours index, 2010 (Doing Business)  Scheduling of nonstandard work hours and annual paid leave.

 

Difficulty of Redundancy index, 2010 (Doing Business)  Notification and approval requirements for termination of a redundant worker or a group of redundant workers, obligation to reassign or retrain and priority rules for redundancy and reemployment.

 

Redundancy costs, 2010 (Doing Business)  Notice requirements, severance payments and penalties due when terminating a redundant worker, expressed in weeks of salary.

 

Labor tax and contributions (%), 2011 (Doing Business)  amount of taxes and mandatory contributions on labor paid by the business as a percentage of commercial profits. This amount include mandatory social security contributions paid by the employer both to public and private entities, as well as other taxes or contributions related to employing workers.

 

Employment to population ratio, 15+, total (%), 2005-09 avg (International Labor Organization)  the proportion of a country’s population that is employed. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Employment to population ratio, 15+, male (%), 2005-09 avg (International Labor Organization) The proportion of a country’s population that is employed. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Employment to population ratio, 15+, female (%), 2005-09 avg (International Labor Organization) The proportion of a country’s population that is employed. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Employment to population ratio, ages 15-24, total (%), 2005-09 (International Labor Organization)   Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country’s population that is employed. Ages 15-24 are generally considered the youth population. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Employment to population ratio, ages 15-24, male (%), 2005-09 (International Labor Organization)   Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country’s population that is employed. Ages 15-24 are generally considered the youth population. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Employment to population ratio, ages 15-24, female (%), 2005-09 (International Labor Organization)   Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country’s population that is employed. Ages 15-24 are generally considered the youth population. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Employment to population ratio, Total, 25+ (%)  2005-09 (International Labor Organization) Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country’s population that is employed. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Employment to population ratio, Male, 25+ (%)  2005-09 (International Labor Organization) Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country’s population that is employed. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Employment to population ratio, Female, 25+ (%)  2005-09 (International Labor Organization) Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country’s population that is employed. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Unemployment with tertiary education, total (% of total unemployment), 2007 (DDP)   Unemployment by level of educational attainment shows the unemployed by level of educational attainment, as a percentage of the unemployed.

 

Unemployment with secondary education, total (% of total unemployment), 2007 (DDP)  Unemployment by level of educational attainment shows the unemployed by level of educational attainment, as a percentage of the unemployed.

 

Labor force participation rate, 15+, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization)  Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and above  that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Labor force participation rate, Male, 15+, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization)  Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and above  that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Labor force participation rate, Female, 15+, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization)  Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and above  that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Labor force participation rate,total, 15-24, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization) Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15-24 that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Labor force participation rate, Male, 15-24, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization) Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15-24 that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Labor force participation rate, Female, 15-24, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization) Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15-24 that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Labor force participation rate, total 15-64, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization)   Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15-64 that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Labor force participation rate, Male, 15-64, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization)   Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15-64 that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Labor force participation rate, Female, 15-64, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization)   Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15-64 that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Labor force participation rate, total, 65+, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization) Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 65 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Labor force participation rate, Male, 65+, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization) Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 65 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Labor force participation rate, Female, 65+, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization) Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 65 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Youth unemployment rate, total, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization) Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Youth unemployment rate, Male, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization) Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Youth unemployment rate, Female, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization) Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Adult unemployment rate, total, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization) Adult unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 25 and over without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.  International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Adult unemployment rate, Male, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization) Adult unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 25 and over without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.  International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Adult unemployment rate, Female, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization) Adult unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 25 and over without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.  International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Share of youth unemployment in total unemployment, total, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization) Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.  International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Share of youth unemployment in total unemployment, Male, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization) Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.  International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Share of youth unemployment in total unemployment, Female, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization) Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country.  International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Long-term unemployment, total, 25+, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization) Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Long-term unemployment, Male, 25+, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization) Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Long-term unemployment, Female, 25+, 2005-09 (International Labor Organization) Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed. International Labour Organization key indicators of the labor market.

 

Labor force with tertiary education (% of total), 2007 (DDP)   Labor force with tertiary education is the proportion of labor force that has a tertiary education, as a percentage of the total labor force.

 

Labor force with secondary education (% of total), 2007 (DDP)   Labor force with secondary education is the proportion of the labor force that has a secondary education, as a percentage of the total labor force.

 

Firms offering formal training (% of firms) , 2009 (DDP)   Firms offering formal training are the percentage of firms offering formal training programs for their permanent, full-time employees.

 

Females in Labor Force (% of total labor force), 2009 (DDP) Labor force comprises all people who meet the International Labor Organization's definition of the economically active population. International Labour Organization.

 

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INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

 

Telephones Per 1,000 People, 2009 (telephone mainlines + mobile phones) (DDP)

 

Telephone Mainlines Per 1,000 People, 2009 (DDP)Telephone mainlines are telephone lines connecting a customer's equipment to the public switched telephone network.

 

Mobile Phones Per 1,000 People, 2009 (DDP) Mobile telephone subscribers are subscribers to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology.

 

Computers Per 1,000 Persons, 2008 (DDP) Personal computers are self-contained computers designed to be used by a single individual.

 

TV Households with Television, 2008  (DDP) are the share of households with a television set. Some countries report only the number of households with a color television set, and therefore the true number may be higher than reported. International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates.

 

Daily Newspapers Per 1,000 People, 2004 (total average circulation or copies printed) (DDP)  Daily newspapers refer to those published at least four times a week. 

 

International Internet Bandwidth (bits per person), 2009 (DDP) This is the contracted capacity of international connections between countries for transmitting Internet traffic. International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates.

 

Internet Users Per 1,000 people, 2009 (DDP) The indicator relies on nationally reported data. In some cases, it is based on national surveys (they differ across countries in the age and frequency of use they cover), in others it is derived from reported Internet Service Provider subscriber counts.

 

Fixed broadband internet access tariff (US$ per month), 2009 (DDP) Fixed broadband Internet access tariff is the lowest sampled cost per 100 kilobits a second per month and are calculated from low- and high-speed monthly service charges. Monthly charges do not include installation fees or modem rentals.

 

Availability of e-Government Services, 2008 (WEF The Global Information Technology Report 2008/2009  ) Table 9.02. This is based on a large sample group in a particular country responding to the question of whether the "online government services, such as personal tax, car registration, passport, business permit, and e-procurement are (1 = not available, 7 = extensively available) (1= low, 7 = high).

 

Government Online Service Index, 2010 (WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011) The Government Online Service Index assesses the quality of government’s delivery of online services.

 

ICT Expenditure as % of GDP, 2008 (DDP) Information and communications technology (ICT) expenditures include external spending on information technology ("tangible" spending on information technology products purchased by businesses, households, governments, and education institutions from vendors or organizations outside the purchasing entity), internal spending on information technology ("intangible" spending on internally customized software, capital depreciation, and the like), and spending on telecommunications and other office equipment. World Information Technology and Services Alliance, Digital Planet 2004: The Global Information Economy, and Global Insight, Inc.

 

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